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Lamiaceae Plants Put the 'Fun' in Antifungal

Fungi

Many years ago, fungi were classified as plants, but that has changed! Fungi are a distinct group of organisms that include mushrooms, mold, and yeast, and are different from plants for two reasons: their cells walls are composed of chitin, and they don’t make their own food. Plants have cell walls composed of cellulose and use photosynthesis to make their own food.

Fungi are microscopic to macroscopic in size. As a matter of fact, the largest single living organism on Earth is the Humongous fungus (Armillaria ostoyae), which is nearly four-square miles in size (BBC, 2014).

Fungi are parasites which are found everywhere on the Earth. Not only do they live in air, water, and on land, but they live in and on plants and animals, including humans. Brown et al., (2012) estimated that at least 25% of the human population (1.9 billion people) have fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails. Further, systemic fungal infections kill three times as many people than malaria...

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The Salvation of Salvia apiana (White sage)

All things are bound together. All things connect.” -Chief Seattle

Mass Extinction

Scientists revealed in 2010 that the Earth is undergoing its sixth mass extinction whereby over 1,000,000 species are facing extinction (1). One of the two factors primarily contributing to this alarming number is habitat destruction, fuelled in particular by monoculture, urban sprawl, and unsustainable management of land. Species directly affected by habitat destruction include essential oil-bearing plants. Approximately 9% of 400 essential oil-bearing plants traded on the world market are recognized as threatened or near-threatened (2), and this number continues to increase. In the last year alone, the conservation status for three aromatic plants were elevated, and include Salvia apiana - white sage - which was added to the United Plant Savers ‘At-risk’ list.

White sage

White sage is an evergreen perennial shrub, 1–2.5 meters tall, with a delightful aroma exuding...

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